Kultúrne dedičstvo / Cultural heritage

Hlavným cieľom panelu je otvoriť diskusiu o teoretických konceptoch, metodologických prístupoch, tematickom smerovaní a najnaliehavejších výzvach týkajúcich sa etnologického/ antropologického výskumu kultúrneho dedičstva v 21. storočí. Vedecká diskusia o kultúrnom dedičstve je zložitá, rôznorodá a neraz plná aj protichodných argumentácií. Odráža skutočnosť, že kultúrne dedičstvo nie je pojmom hodnotovo-neutrálnym, ale hodnotovo-zaťaženým. To, čo je alebo nie je identifikované ako kultúrne dedičstvo, je výsledkom politických a mocenských vzťahov, pričom do procesu rozhodovania vstupujú aj ďalší aktéri.
Hlavnou organizáciou, ktorá má rozhodujúci vplyv na stratégie a praktiky identifikácie a hodnotenia hmotných a nehmotných kultúrnych javov v jednotlivých krajinách sveta, je UNESCO. Aj keď zámer tejto globálnej inštitúcie bol a je ušľachtilý, pri identifikácii pamiatok svetového kultúrneho dedičstva dáva UNESCO rozhodovacie slovo vládnym delegáciám, a nie hlasu odborníkov. Ulf Hannerz opisuje stratégie a praktiky UNESCO ako kultúrne inžinierstvo založené na národnej logike a globálnom vládnutí. Práve vďaka týmto praktikám sa kultúrne dedičstvo stalo objektom politickej a ekonomickej agendy v takmer každej krajine sveta. Je predmetom ochrany, ale zároveň komoditou a nástrojom na získanie národnej prestíže a ekonomického zisku. Panel sa sústredí na široké etnologické a antropologické perspektívy výskumu kultúrneho dedičstva v súčasnom svete.

Vyzývame odborníkov v oblasti výskumu kultúrneho dedičstva na prihlasovanie príspevkov v nasledovných sekciách panelu:

  • Teoretické úvahy: aké sú hlavné výzvy, témy, teoretické a metodologické prístupy k výskumu hmotného a nehmotného kultúrneho dedičstva z etnologickej/ antropologickej perspektívy?
  • Reprezentácie: kto sú hlavní aktéri v procese „heritizácie“ – v procese identifikácie a označovania kultúrnych javov za kultúrne dedičstvo?  Aká je úloha spolupráce a partnerstiev v procese interpretácie a reinterpretácie alebo produkcie a reprodukcie dedičstva? Aké je miesto intergeneračnej a rodovej transmisie hodnôt a javov kultúrneho dedičstva v súčasných spoločnostiach?
  • Nehmotné kultúrne dedičstvo: aké sú a ako sa určujú kritéria identifikácie a označenia kultúrnych javov za nehmotné kultúrne dedičstvo? Akým spôsobom hodnotia/ určujú kvalitu a udržateľnosť nehmotného kultúrneho dedičstva rôzni aktéri - odborníci, komunitní lídri, miestni a národní politickí predstavitelia? Aký je proces tohto hodnotenia? Ako v procese participujú lokálne komunity a samotní nositelia nehmotného kultúrneho dedičstva? 
  • Dobré praktiky a aplikácie: Aké sú vhodné nástroje a prostriedky umožňujúce a podporujúce poznanie, porozumenie, ochranu, produkciu a reprodukciu kultúrneho dedičstva (vrátane rôznych foriem vzdelávania, digitalizácie, sociálnych sietí a pod.)?
  • Ekonomika a regionálny rozvoj: Aká je úloha kultúrneho dedičstva v lokálnej a národnej ekonomike, turizme, kreatívnom priemysle a pri vzniku sociálnych a kultúrnych inovácií? Ako môže byť kultúrne dedičstvo dôležitým ekonomickým prínosom a zároveň reprezentantom a strážcom hodnôt, symbolov a významov minulosti, dôležitých pre prítomnosť a budúcnosť?

Panel vedie

Alexandra Bitušíková

Úcastníci/účastníčky panelu

Alexandra Bitušíková: Cultural heritage and grassroots activism in Slovakia
(Institute of Ethnology, Slovak Acdemy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia) 

The paper discusses the growth and impact of grassroots activism on cultural heritage in the Slovak urban environment in the second decade of the 21st century. It is based on Jacobsson and Saxonberg’s (2013) and Jacobsson´s (2015) approach to studying urban movements in Central and Eastern Europe. It focuses on grassroots activism as a very important way of civic engagement in urban heritage practices and development. The key objective is to present the case of heritage-related urban activism in the city of Banská Štiavnica (registered on the World Heritage List since 1993), particularly the case of the Calvary – an important pilgrimage place that was a crucial component of religious life of local communities for more than 200 years since 1751. The paper builds on ethnographic methods of participant observation, interviews and textual analysis of local resources.
 

Tamas Regi: The Anthropology of Heritage and Tourism: an Ethiopian Case
(Kodolányi János University of Applied Sciences, Székesfehérvár, Hungary; Visiting Research Fellow,University of Oxford, UK)

The paper is about how the south Ethiopian Mursi, a small scale pastoral society, think about their own heritage and how they try to make some of the elements of their culture visible for tourists. The material I will present is based on an ongoing anthropological research among these people who currently face probably the biggest threat to their traditional culture in their living memory. Recently the Ethiopian government is building a hydroelectric dam, known as Gibe III, in the middle basin of the Omo river. This will create the second biggest dam reservoir in sub-Saharan Africa and eliminate the annual floods. This will change the lives of around 90,000 people residing downstream, including the Mursi and seven other ethnic groups. Moreover, the government has allocated a huge area of agricultural and grazing land in the lower Omo to the Ethiopian Sugar Corporation for the production of sugar cane. Despite the fact that the Lower Valley of the Omo River is listed as UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1980 there seems to be a very rapid change both in the local concepts of heritage and tradition and in the way people relate to their transforming physical environment.
 

Daniela Stavělová: Traditional festivity as an intangible cultural heritage – a second life or ending? A case of the Ride of the Kings in Vlčnov
(The Institute of Ethnology, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic)

The paper is focused on the Ride of the Kings in the Moravian village of Vlčnov in the Czech Republic. The reasons for safeguarding of this ritual have been monitored for several years from the moment when the custom was inscribed on the UNESCO Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage in 2011, particularly in relation to the issues of cultural heritage, collective and cultural  memory and local identity. I am interested to see how the event is modified by the current external pressures and autorities which handle and adapt its content to current requirements. These include the negotiation of cultural ownership, commodification, the process of hybridization and other phenomena associated with the representation and symbolic expression in the mirror of contemporary immagination. The return qualitative research is based on ethnographic data collection – observation, interviews and time-laps visual documentation. The project observes the festivity also by means of ethnochoreology where the study of dance meanings contribute to understanding the implicit social relations of the local community that handles the cultural heritage or memory in terms of  its needs.

 

Noel B. Salazar: The tourismification of heritage or the heritagization of tourism?
Some anthropological reflections
(Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Leuven, Belgium)

While heritage conservationists argue for the need to place preservation ahead of tourism, the reality is that tourism cannot be longer neglected as an unwanted negative side-effect. It is a dynamic force through which heritage is not only consumed but also created. Tourism development of cultural heritage is both an opportunity and a risk and requires careful consideration, planning, implementation and management. Sustainable tourism development entails the adoption of planning strategies to mitigate the negative impact of tourism without sacrificing its benefits. There is an urgent need for new ideas and concepts that reconcile tourism and heritage preservation with the need for sustainable development. Besides this, more attention needs to be paid to ethical issues, in particular the involvement of local communities, ethical codes of tourism (such as the UNWTO Global Code for Ethics in Tourism), the moral implications of cultural heritage, the responsibilities of museums and the question of who has the power to own and interpret heritage. As global tourism continues to expand, cultural heritage sites and practices will be the source of historically unprecedented numbers of tourists. Most indicators suggest there will be a huge increase in tourism worldwide over the next ten years, virtually doubling the current numbers. While the management of cultural heritage is usually the responsibility of a particular community or custodian group, the protection, conservation, interpretation and (re)presentation of the cultural diversity of any particular place or people are important challenges for us all.

 

Hana Červinková, Juliet Golden: Re-envisioning an Early Modernist Urban Landscape in Contemporary Poland
 (Institute of Ethnology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic and University of Lower Silesia, Wroclaw, Poland)

In this contribution, we build on the anthropological approach to landscape as a cultural process whose meaning-laden relationship to the past deeply impacts its redefinitions for the present. We consider a unique urban protected cultural heritage area inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List - the Centennial Hall in Wroclaw, Poland. Centennial Hall is an example of a historical site of technological development and innovation, which has become a place of heritage. While retaining its original function, this cultural landscape continues to be reshaped by conflicting interpretations tied to memory, citizenship, international politics and local identity.  Our contribution addresses the complex dynamics of this cultural landscape in the context of changing economic and political conditions of Central Europe.
 

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