Slovenský národopis 4/2016

V Novom roku s novým Slovenským národopisom. Číslo 4/2016, ktoré vyšlo v anglickej jazykovej mutácii, je venované téme The Body and Age a pripravili sme ho v spolupráci s hosťujúcimi redaktorkami Martou Botikovou a Tatianou Bužekovou.

Téma čísla: The Body and Age


Obsah

 

Editoriál  (Marta BOTIKOVÁ, Tatiana BUŽEKOVÁ)


Štúdie

RAMŠAK, Mojca: Folk explanations of blood-lands: the map of massacres and bestial cruelties

ZEMAN, Zdenko, GEIGER ZEMAN, Marija: “Such is life that people get old and change”: Gendered Experiences of Ageing Bodies from Older Persons’ View

PEŠŤANSKÁ, Zuzana: Moral Foundations and Symbolic Pollution: What Do Midwives Say About Hospitalized Women?

BOTIKOVÁ, Marta: Reproductive behaviour in the first half of the 20th century in “one-child” regions
 

Materiál

JAKUBÍKOVÁ, Kornélia, ŠPIRKOVÁ, Veronika: Corporeality in the communication of young people


Esej

SOUKUP, Martin, DVOŘÁKOVÁ, Michaela: Anthropology of Body: the concept illustrated on an example of eating disorders
 

Recenzie a anotácie

Petr Číhal: Léčení a léčitelství v lidové tradici (Zuzana PEŠŤANSKÁ)

Book Summaries:
Lenderová, Milena; Jiránek, Tomáš; Macková, Marie: Z dějin české každodennosti. Život v 19. století (The history of Czech everydayness: life in the 19th century);
Lenderová, Milena, Tinková, Daniela; Hanulík, Vladan: Tělo mezi medicínou a disciplínou. Proměny lékařského obrazu a ideálu lidského těla a tělesnosti v dlouhém 19. století (The body between medicine and discipline: transformations of medical depictions and ideals of the human body and corporeality in the long 19th century);
Falisová, Anna; Lengyelová, Tünde:  Bioterapia optikou histórie. Larválna terapia, apiterapia, hirudoterapia, bakteriofágová terapia, ichtyoterapia, helmintoterapia (Biotherapy through the lens of history: larval therapy, apitherapy, hirudotherapy, phage therapy, ichthyotherapy, and helminthic therapy);
Kaufman, Sharon R.: Ordinary Medicine: Extraordinary Treatments, Longer Lives, and Where to Draw the Line. (Naď HOLUBOVÁ)

Aleksandra Pavićević: From Mystery To Spectacle (Essays on Death in Serbia from 19th - 21st Century) (Vladimír POTANČOK)

CARGO Vol 13, No 1, 2 / 2015 Journal for Cultural / Social Anthropology (Mária ZVALENÁ)

 

Správy

International Conference Perspectives on Contemporary Legend (28 June – 20 July 2016, Tallinn, Estonia) (Zuzana PANCZOVÁ)

Report from the European Researchers' Night, the Heart and Brain of Slovak Science (30 September 2016, Bratislava) (Katarína RABATINOVÁ)

International Conference Ethnology in the Third Millennium: Topics, Methods, Challenges (19–21 October 2016, Smolenice) (Alexandra BITUŠÍKOVÁ, Natália BLAHOVÁ, Miroslava HLINČÍKOVÁ, Gabriela KILIÁNOVÁ, Soňa G. LUTHEROVÁ, Zuzana PANCZOVÁ, Tatiana PODOLINSKÁ, Katarína POPELKOVÁ, Vladimír POTANČOK, Ľubica VOĽANSKÁ)

Pecha Kucha Night Bratislava, Vol. 35, Social Sciences and Art (9 November 2016, Bratislava)  (Vladimír POTANČOK, Soňa G. LUTHEROVÁ)

2nd Edition of the Academy of Roma Studies (09–11 November 2016, Bratislava) (Ivana ŠUSTEROVÁ)

Puppetry in Slovakia and Czechia Now Inscribed on the UNESCO Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity (Juraj HAMAR)

Obsah ročníka 64


Abstrakty:

RAMŠAK, Mojca: Folk explanations of blood-lands: the map of massacres and bestial cruelties

Blood is not solely a body part and a medicinal substance; it’s likewise a metaphor for life. Blood as a social concept has mainly been explored as a symbol of kinship, genetic heritage and lineage, nationalism, race, taboo, in rituals, and blood donations. Besides that, ethnic or national survival is also written on the map with bloody place-names. When the soil is soaked with blood of patriotic defenders and endangering others, the collective memory creates new bloody geographical names. They record the evidence of historically important harsh events, remind us of heroic battles, neighbouring antagonisms, or, provide an insight into religious changes in the area. The stories of violent killings and bloodshed in defence of a country, enriched with fears, imagination and prejudices towards the bloodthirsty foreign invaders, such as Turks or French, upset people’s blood. Though the base kri, blood, Blut, krvav, blutig is proportionally rare in Slovene toponymics, these geographical names describe historic episodes of groups and a nation. The tales about the origin of bloody place-names and about the horrific blood spill, which stops the blood in the veins, became a part of the nation’s cultural heritage.

Key words: blood, cultural perceptions of blood, blood-lands, ethnology, anthropology of space and place


ZEMAN, Zdenko, GEIGER ZEMAN, Marija: “Such is life that people get old and change”: Gendered Experiences of Ageing Bodies from Older Persons’ View

Ageing/aged bodies reflects gender norms and power relations. The paper is based on analysis of four focus groups realized in homes for older and infirm persons with participants older than 65 years. Old age and ageing are not gender neutral phenomenon – perception, experience, interpretation and strategies of managing of ageing/aged body are gendered. For participants tidiness and cleanliness are most important despite gender. Dominant interpretations of focus groups’ participants reflect traditional understanding of gender roles, gender ideals and internalization of gender and age stereotypes: physical appearance is more important to women than to
men; beauty and physical attractiveness are reserved for youth; female sexuality is interpreted as burden, obligation and source of pain for women; menopausa is interpreted as beginning of declining; male ageing bodies were interpreted in functional
terms. Negative attitudes toward all types of surgical interventions on face and body are dominant and in this aspect participants reject socio-cultural pressures for youthful and glamorous looking in old age.

Key words: body, gender, ageing, appearance, Croatia, focus groups


PEŠŤANSKÁ, Zuzana: Moral Foundations and Symbolic Pollution: What Do Midwives Say About Hospitalized Women?

The aim of this study is to describe how the work organization of midwives is related to their moral judgements concerning pregnant women. This analysis is based on material gathered during ethnographic research undertaken at a gynaecology and maternity ard at a hospital in Slovakia. The interpretations of the research findings are informed by the work of Mary Douglas and Moral Foundations Theory. Using the analytical tools of the grid-group, this article then shows that the working environment of midwives is a type of hierarchical group. Douglas predicted that such a type of social structure would be built on values such as subordination, respect for authority, and purity. An analysis of the material confirms this assertion: midwives’ narratives of pregnant women are in fact representations of moral values of authority and purity. Explicit statements of emotions of anger, contempt, disgust, and elevation serve as indicators of either the violation or observance of moral rules.

Key words: danger, narratives, emotions, healthcare


BOTIKOVÁ, Marta: Reproductive behaviour in the first half of the 20th century in “one-child” regions

Historical and demographic literature saw the issue of birth control in Hungary in the early decades of the 19th century. Ethnological research processes information on the phenomenon in general (Filová, 1975) and in some specific cultural expressions (Botíková, 1997). By carrying out repeated investigations we have obtained material of biographical narratives, which present a more detailed context of a partnership, pregnancy, childbirth, care for the woman and child in the family in the villages, which for decades continuously (statistically) recorded birth control. We expect the single-child system is manifested in several aspects of life. The analysis is going to help in understanding the causes and functioning of this phenomenon. 

Key words: demographics, Slovakia, Hungary, reproductive behaviour, single-child system


JAKUBÍKOVÁ, Kornélia, ŠPIRKOVÁ, Veronika: Corporeality in the communication of young people

The study describes communication of young people with the emphasis on its content dedicated to corporeality and determines a content-based classification of topics from a normative perspective: what topics are regular, intimate, or tabooed; participants; and gender differences. The study is divided into parts, which thematically describe: starting points, research, sample; communication content and topics; participants in  communication; gender differences; factors of communication and the language of communication. The study is elaborated on the basis of information coming from professional literature and field research conducted by semi-structured interviews with university students and university educated people – 15 women and 15 men in age 22–28 (year of birth 1987–1993) coming from an urban environment in Slovakia.

Key words: communication, corporeality, young people, gender, intimacy, taboo 

SOUKUP, Martin, DVOŘÁKOVÁ, Michaela: Anthropology of Body: the concept illustrated on an example of eating disorders

The aim of the article is to introduce the concept of anthropology of body. The authors
suggest studying the human body at three structural levels, which correspond to the three main types of cultural elements: artefacts, norms and meanings. The authors argue that human body and embodiment is possible to analyse at the three structural levels: modification, disciplination and semiotization processes of human body. The authors apply this concept of anthropology of body on the study of eating disorders, which they understand as a cultural phenomenon. This application of the proposed concept is based on the findings obtained during the authors’ own research.

Key words: anthropology of body, embodiment, thinness, eating disorders

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