Slovenský národopis 2/2017

Druhé tohtoročné číslo Slovenského národopisu obsahuje kľúčové príspevky z konferencie Etnológia v treťom tisícročí: témy, metódy, výzvy, ktorá sa konala pri príležitosti osláv 70. výročia Ústavu etnológie SAV v októbri 2016 v Smoleniciach.


Obsah


Editoriál - Editorial

Institute of Ethnology of Slovak Academy of Sciences in the third Millenium (PODOLINSKÁ, Tatiana, Vladimír POTANČOK)

 

Štúdie

HAUKANES, Haldis: Futures full of promise, futures of despair. Contrasting temporalities in the life narrative of young Czechs

PODOLINSKÁ, Tatiana: Roma in Slovakia - silent and invisible minority (Social Networking and Pastoral Pentecostal Discourse as a case of giving voice and positive visibility)

BARNA, Gábor: Rites, Feasts, Identity. Possible Questions and Answers on the Present-day Functions of Rites and Feasts

POPELKOVÁ, Katarína: Holidays - the Mirror of Society, The Social and Cultural Contexts of Present-Day Holidays in the Slovak Republic

GIRY, Julien: A Specific Social Function of Rumors and Conspiracy Theories: Strengthening Community´s Ties in Trouble Times. A Multilevel Analysis.


Materiál

GULIN ZRNIĆ, Valentina: Ethnological and cultural anthropological approaches to the city: framework of the Zagreb city-making project


Esej

UHEREK, Zdeněk: Not only moving bodies: contested and transforming concepts in migration studies
 

Správy

PODOLINSKÁ, Tatiana: The Institute of Ethnology SAS Evaluated as One of the Best Scientific Institutions in Slovakia


Recenzie

Gabriela Kiliánová, Juraj Zajonc: 70 rokov Ústavu etnológie Slovenskej akadémie vied: kontinuity a diskontinuity bádanie a jednej inštitúcie (70 Years of the Institute of Ethnology of the Slovak Academy of Sciences: Continuities and Discontinuities of Research and of One Institution (Margita JÁGEROVÁ)
 

Celé číslo Slovenského národopisu 2017/2 si môžete stiahnuť  TU.

Abstrakty

Haldis Haukanes: Futures full of promise, futures of despair. Contrasting temporalities in the life narrative of young Czechs

On the backdrop of increasing anxieties about the state of the world and its future found among by scholars and grassroots alike, this article explores young people’s narratives of the future, paying particular attention to dominant temporal structures through which the young people frame their expectations and imagine their lives to come. The article builds on research with young Czechs in three different regions of the country, carried out in the years 2007 – 2009 and 2014 – 2016. In addition it incorporates elements from my former work on post-socialist transformations in rural Czech Republic. Drawing on anthropological debates about time, agency and social change, and on recent scholarship on nostalgia, I argue for the necessity of a diversified understanding of temporality when analysing narrations of both lived lives and future visions; linear and reproductive temporalities appear to co-exist with conceptions of time as accelerated, incoherent and unpredictable. Further, I argue that time or temporality is not just something which people are subject to; it also involves agency. This implies that well-established temporal frameworks can be used to narrate expectations for the future, or that different temporal frameworks can be strategically combined to manage both the present and the future.
 
Key words: youth, the Czech Republic, temporalities, narratives, future, nostalgia

Tatiana Podolinská: Roma in Slovakia - silent and invisible minority (Social Networking and Pastoral Pentecostal Discourse as a case of giving voice and positive visibility)

The contribution is meant to be a micro-case study to the issue of institutional production and reproduction of security of a selected minority group in Slovakia, through tracing the process of social networking and re-construction of the (ethnic) identity on a religious basis. Principal attention is paid to the analysis of the trans-social and trans-ethnic discourse and the concept of New Roma as a de-ethnicised and ahistorically constructed label with positive and non-ascriptive connotations. The Pentecostal concept of the Family of God is studied in connection with the perception of the increased feeling of security not only within primary (family) networks, but also within hybrid (religion-based) networks. The New Roma concept offered to Roma by pastors would increase the potential of Roma to enter also secondary (professional) and other kinds of networks within the mainstream society and allow them positive visibility at the mezzo-level of society. The new forms of social networking hand in hand with the new concept of de-ethnicised and de-essentialised identity would allow Roma to change the management technics from making security through invisibility to a more emancipative and assertive technique employing the paradigm “more visible = more secure”. The author points out the forced ethnicisation of the categories of Rom and Roma nation at the level of the practical discourse. From this point of view, the traditional type of ethnicity (based on traditional definitions of the nation) is often intentionally over-communicated. Both ethnicisation (excessive accentuation of the ethnic perspective) and de-ethnicisation (its intentional suppression) usually serve as practical (political) tools for an objective fixing of the unfavourable position of Roma ethnic minority. This may produce a strong feeling of cultural hostility and insecurity on “both sides”. The author picks up the cases from practice and turns attention to the analysis of the deconstruction a consequent reconstruction of the label Roma in the Pentecostal pastoral discourse among the Roma in Slovakia. She shows how it works with a positive concept of Romahood in an ahistoric manner, i.e. using the concept of “Family of God”. The comparative analysis of construction of (new) Romahood in pastoral discourse has shown that it is constructed as a category of practice, which is intentionally ethnically emptied to a large extent and creatively filled with specific content in line with the creed of good, moral, useful and decent life. This approach enables the “new Roma” to adopt new, socially and personally more favourable and secure positions in the new late-modern world.
 
Key words: ethnicity, social networks, cultural security, Roma identity, Pentecostal pastoral discourse, Slovakia

Gábor Barna: Rites, Feasts, Identity. Possible Questions and Answers on the Present-day Functions of Rites and Feasts

What is it that makes rites important in our individual and community lives? What can this role be? Is it to make occasions more festive? What makes an occasion festive? Does celebrating mean to live with rites and use rites? How does the use of rites or rituals make an occasion more festive? What is the role of the feast and celebration at the level and in the life of the individual and the group (family, settlement, state, nation)? Why is it that we can feel our times to be an age of festivals (=special feasts)? What does this increase mean? These questions already point to the possible direction for answers, namely that rites can be the vehicles of important elements of content that make them necessary in all ages and all social systems: this content characteristic at the same time also emphasises the social role and function of rites. At this point the world of rites and feasts is connected to the levels of public life, power and politics. Rites and feasts are in constant movement and change. Rites have become a subject attracting multidisciplinary interest with many new approaches. Among the functions of rites it is mainly their expressive, social and renewal role that enables the creation of individual and community identities. Here the rite may be connected with the feast that breaks away from the routine and frame of everyday life and offers the possibility of practising it. The English expressions ‘holiday’ and ‘feast’ reflect the dual nature of the concept: a ‘holy day’, a time of freedom, time that is not controlled, as well as the excesses that accompany such events. It lifts the person celebrating it out of the everyday, weekday routine, and makes them part of this special time. Today we are witnessing the desacralisation, fragmentation and individualisation of rites and feasts. Their religious/Christian nature is pushed into the background and new desacralised feasts have appeared and are taking shape. Since the turn of the 19th to 20th century national and state days have come to increasingly predominate in the order of feasts and the dominance of civil and ideological celebration can be observed.
The religious, state and national days have been shaping and dividing communities since the 19th century. The mobility appearing at all levels of society also opens up a new possibility for integration along which new feasts can appear creating what are now a whole series of local festivals. The social acceptance of the new order of feasts reflects the acceptance of the social order. Science has also become a force shaping identity, celebrating itself and its institutions with the rites of scientific conferences. In this way the feast with its rites can shape religious, national, political, regional and local, group and individual identities.
 
Key words: rites, feasts, identities, church holidays, desacralisation, fragmentation, Central Europe

Katarína Popelková: Holidays - the Mirror of Society, The Social and Cultural Contexts of Present-Day Holidays in the Slovak Republic

After 2010, the study of present-day holidays established itself as an original tool for the study of society in Slovak ethnology. In the first stage, the research team of the Institute of Ethnology SAS focused on the empirical research of the specific contexts of the term holiday in Slovakia and mapped the range of situations which are designated by people as holidays today. The term holiday means the interruption of the daily routine, a moment commemorated on a cyclical basis or a period accompanied by normative or ritual acts and with an ascribed symbolic meaning. Our research showed that apart from identification, ritual and spiritual functions which are important for individuals or communities, as commonly studied by ethnology, holidays also fulfil a number of practical functions at present. After the discovery of the manifold overlaps of this phenomenon with the on-going social processes, the focus of ethnology has shifted to society as such and on its reflection in the mirror of holidays. Through an analysis of empirical materials from the observation and ethnographic description of the events in the public space during holidays, the study of the holiday legislation, the activities of various institutions, the production of printed and electronic media, business and advertising, which create the current content and the ways of celebrating holidays, it was possible to obtain a basis for a specific testimony about the present-day social processes in the Slovak Republic. In this context, this study is dedicated to the following relations: holidays and politics, holidays and economy, and holidays and citizens.
 
Key words: public holiday, commemorative day, holiday, present-day holidays, celebration of holidays, festivity, ritualisation, ritual practice, ritualised behaviour, social functions of holidays, national holiday, laws on holidays/holiday legislation, Slovakia

Julien, Giry: A Specific Social Function of Rumors and Conspiracy Theories: Strengthening Community´s Ties in Trouble Times. A Multilevel Analysis.

This paper hypothesizes that conspiracy theories and rumors are an act of social conformism. The evaluation of their plausibility, and their success, is collectively determinate regarding the established values of an in-group and the social context. In periods of troubles they flourish to reaffirm themselves and strengthen community’s ties, structures and leaderships. After a theoretical introduction, I will demonstrate this assumption through a multilevel analysis (macro, meso, micro) which considers a wide range of social situations from the French Revolution to neighborhood conflicts and from open riots to latent crises.

Key words: Rumors, Conspiracy Theories, Social Functions, Social Ties, Multilevel Analysis

Valentina Gulin Zrnić: Ethnological and cultural anthropological approaches to the city: framework of the Zagreb city-making project

The author presents the research project “City-making: space, culture and identity” which is focused on contemporary urban transformations of Zagreb. The article is a research report on particular project activities and on several theoretical and methodological challenges that unfold from the research. The paper starts with a glimpse of urban research in (Croatian) ethnology and cultural anthropology in which the current project is embedded. Research segments into city-making by art and city-making by public events are briefly described in two parts of the article. The focus is however, on indications of certain topics and approaches that stem from particular research (time, motion, effect) which could be considered as potent for further theorizing the city and urban space. Correspondingly, research methods of walking ethnography and sensory ethnography are also discussed as valuable tools in this work in progress research.

Key words: urban anthropology, Zagreb, city-making, public spaces, public events

Zdeněk Uherek: Not only moving bodies: contested and transforming concepts in migration studies

This text is focused on migration to the American and European continents. It deals with the conceptualizations of the terms transnationalism, cosmopolitanism, the source space, target space, country of origin. It shows the changes in the usage of these terms over the past hundred years and also indicates some changes in the migration and post-migration situations. For its interpretation, I have chosen the discussion on immigration, which took place in the United States of America during World War I and compare the argumentation then with the contemporary conceptualization of the terms. I have selected the empirical examples of the changes in contemporary migrations from my own research work and from other surveys, which inter alia also took place in the Czech milieu.

Key words: migration, transnationalism, cosmopolitanism, country of origin

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