Slovenský národopis 2/2016

Na svete je nové číslo Slovenského národopisu, ktoré je medzinárodné a venované etnobiológii (etnobotanike, etnozoológii a etnomykológii), vednému odboru, ktorý je mostom medzi spoločenskými a prírodnými vedami. Jeho hosťujúcimi editormi boli Łukasz Łuczaj a Rastislava Stoličná.

Obsah

 

Editoriál I.

 
Štúdia

Wallman, Sandra, Hayakawa, Tomoko: The Capability of Context: Activism and Resignation among Filipino Domestic Workers in London
 
Theme of the issue: Alternative Sources of Food in the Post-postmodern Age
 

Editoriál II.

 
Štúdie

Svanberg, Ingvar, Bonow, Madeleine, Cios, Stanisław: Fishing for Smelt, Osmerus
eperlanus (Linnaeus, 1758) A traditional food fish—possible cuisine in postmodern
Sweden?

Jug-Dujaković, Marija, Łuczaj, Łukasz: The Contribution of Josip Bakić’s Research
to the Study of Wild Edible Plants of the Adriatic Coast: a Military Project with
Ethnobiological and Anthropological Implications

Kotowski, Marcin: Differences between European Regulations on Wild Mushroom
Commerce and Actual Trends in Wild Mushroom Picking

Kotašková, Eva: The Turn into Dangerous Meat: Case Study of Horsemeat Food Fraud in the Czech Republic
 

Materiály

Safonova, Tatiana, Sántha, István: Gathering as Ontological Practice among Evenki of Eastern Siberia

Pieńczak, Agnieszka: The Collection of Questionnaires Concerning Wild Plants of
the Digital Platform of the Polish Ethnographic Atlas

 

Esej

Stoličná, Rastislava: Possibilities of Using Wild Plants in the Traditional Culinary
Culture of Slovakia

 
Správy

Rabatinová, Katarína: 6th Copernicus Graduate School Seminar Minorities in
(Central) Europe with Special Focus on Roma (27–29 April 2016, Warsaw, Poland)
Panczová, Zuzana: Comparative Analysis of Conspiracy Theories (COMPACT) CA COST Action CA15101 (2016-2020)

 
Recenzie a anotácie 

Panczová, Zuzana: Jahrbuch für deutsche und osteuropäische Volkskunde. 25 Jahre
Erinnerung an das geteilte Europa

Books Published by the Institute of Ethnology of the Slovak Academy of Sciences (2014–2016)

Abstrakty

Wallman, Sandra, Hakayawa, Tomoko: The Capability of Context: Activism and
Resignation among Filipino Domestic Workers in London

 
Labour migrants with uncertain permissions to remain in a new country are especially vulnerable to exploitation. Based on interviews with Filipino domestic workers, this paper explores the variation in migrants’ reaction to their present circumstance. Their response to injustice or neglect may fall anywhere along a continuum from abject resignation to aggressive activism. Our discussion concerns the capability of the context in which the migrant’s response unfolds. We ask: what could happen here? In this context, what kind of response makes better sense? But the answer changes according to the migrant’s focus. In the narrow context of this place at this time activism may not be feasible and what looks like resignation the only option. But if the context of response is expanded to include remittances which will send children to school or parents to hospital; and to visions of a better future back in the home country, then its capability changes. Resignation in the present maybe a strategy actively directed toward future goals. In this light resignation and activism are not fixed and opposite responses. The individual migrant combines them to match the capability of the context in which she defines herself.
 
Key words: Domestic Workers, Context, Capability, Activism, Resignation
 
Svanberg, Ingvar, Bonow, Madeleine, Cios, Stanisław: Fishing for Smelt, Osmerus
eperlanus (Linnaeus, 1758) A traditional food fish – possible cuisine in postmodern Sweden?

 
For the rural population in Sweden, fishing in lakes and rivers was of great importance until recently. Many fish species served as food or animal fodder, or were used to make glue and other useful products. But the receding of lakes in the nineteenth century, and the expansion of hydropower and worsening of water pollution in the twentieth, contributed to the decline of inland fisheries. At the same time, marine fish became more competitive on the Swedish food market. In some regions, however, certain freshwater species continued to be caught for household consumption well into the twentieth century. One such species was the smelt (Osmerus eperlanus), which fifty years ago was still of economic importance. Nowadays, however, smelt is only caught in very low volumes; its role is therefore insignificant. In neighbouring countries, however – such as Estonia, Lithuania, and Russia – it is still being exploited commercially. In Germany, where water quality has improved in rivers and restaurants have shown increasing interest in smelt, a successful revival for the fish as a regional and seasonal food can be seen. Smelt fishing has dimensions which are not only culinary, but social and cultural as well. Traditional ways of food preparation can be transformed into modern haute cuisine. Smelt fishing has the potential to develop commercially in Sweden also.
 
Key words: Aquatic resources, ethnobiology, food for future, freshwater fish, human
geography, local fishery, traditional knowledge
 
 Jug-Dujaković, Marija, Łuczaj, Łukasz: The Contribution of Josip Bakić’s Research
to the Study of Wild Edible Plants of the Adriatic Coast: a Military Project with
Ethnobiological and Anthropological Implications

 
Between 1962-1986 the Yugoslav Army carried out a project in which Josip Bakić
from the Institute for Naval Medicine of the Yugoslav Navy in Split took the main
professional role. In the project, amongst other activities, Bakić and his team
explored the possibility of soldiers’ survival on the Adriatic islands based on wild
plants and marine animals. As a part of this project, wild food plants and animals
from the coast that had been used by the population during World War I and II were surveyed. Some phytochemical properties of the plants were also studied. Education of soldiers and the wider public was provided based on the results of the
research and experiments. The project is a unique example of combining a scientific study with a practical military experiment. Apart from scientific papers the results were also popularized as a survival handbook, a book about nutrition from nature, film documentaries, and workshops. In this paper we summarize the achievements of this project based on the review of published data and interviews with Josip Bakić.

Key words: foraging, famine, World War II, survival, wild edible plants, wild foods,
sea food, Adriatic coast
 
Kotowski, Marcin: Differences between European Regulations on Wild Mushroom
Commerce and Actual Trends in Wild Mushroom Picking

 
Currently more and more European countries are introducing lists of mushroom
species allowed for commercial use. However these lists are far from the actual
composition of mushroom species collected by local communities. Field research
conducted in five villages located in central Mazovia, Poland presents a record of
thirty five different taxa collected among local communities of which 13 weren’t
registered as allowed for commerce in Poland. This article aims to discuss the reasons that stand behind these differences in relation to the actual useful potential of European mycobiota.
 
Key words: ethnomycology, Mazovia, Europe, mushroom commerce, traditional
mushroom use, mushroom trade
 
Kotašková, Eva: The Turn into Dangerous Meat: Case Study of Horsemeat Food Fraud in the Czech Republic
 
The aim of this article is to analyze context and strategies to decrease the alternative use of safe food product that does not fit into the market system. This process is revealed in a case study of a horsemeat food fraud in the Czech Republic that took place in 2013. Unlike many other European countries, in the Czech Republic food products containing undeclared horsemeat were not given to charities or used as a source of fuel but were classified as dangerous and thus turned to a category of non-edible food. How can we understand this way of processing and what can this case say about attitudes towards classification of food?
Following a story of products containing undeclared horsemeat, a network of context and strategies that are relevant in this case is developed. The analysis is inspired by Science and Technology Studies, mainly the study of classification and standards.
The horsemeat case shows that categories of waste and food are consequences of
depoliticization of politics, market regulation, technologies, and understanding of
objects. Together with various strategies of decreasing the possibilities to negotiate
leads to preservation of prevailing standards and classifications.
 
Key words: food fraud, food waste, dangerous meat, STS, standards, classifications
 
Safonova, Tatiana, Sántha, István: Gathering as Ontological Practice among
Evenki of Eastern Siberia

 
Through visual analysis presented in 15 tables the authors looked at the complexity
of gathering as practice that not only plays a role in subsistence, but also creates
meaning and frames an engagement with the environment. Gathering is studied as
consisting of several processes: the searching; cleaning and sorting things, to lay out
and to dry things; and transportation, consumption and packing. Objects that are
gathered are shown to play important roles of mediums for people and their
environment. Cases of berries, firewood, jade stones and ice are presented as
illustrations of this argument. In the final part of the article gathering is studied as
a metaphysical phenomenon: a process of switching from disorder to order and back. Gathering poses many metaphysical questions in a practical form, and the authors propose to look at how people deal with these questions. How does the world change for those who gather things? How do they experience this transformation? Does the human attempt to collect things become an attempt to order the chaotic environment, classify it, and contain chaos into small volumes of their bags and buckets? This study is based on social anthropological fieldwork conducted among Evenki people of East Buryatia.
 
Key words: gathering, berries, taiga forest, photographic analysis, social anthropology
 
Pieńczak, Agnieszka: The Collection of Questionnaires Concerning Wild Plants on
the Digital Platform of the Polish Ethnographic Atlas

 
The specificity of the Polish Ethnographic Atlas (PEA) research work and the
potentialities of applying atlas materials have been largely discussed over the last
few years. What should be reminded here is that the research activity of the PEA is
based on two mainstays: the documentary one (collecting fieldwork materials,
museum and library search) and the interpretative one (elaborating appropriate
systematics which take into account various forms and varieties of the investigated
phenomena, preparing maps and concluding on the basis of the spatial ethnographic image). The first stage has been already completed – therefore, the Cieszyn Atlas Unit has rich ethnographic archives, the only one of such a size in Poland. The collection comprises several thousand interview questionnaires, surveys, fieldwork photographs and other archival materials, obtained by Polish ethnologists in the second half of the 20th century nearly all over Poland. The second mainstay of the atlas activity concerns the elaboration of the collected source materials in the form of maps and some corresponding commentaries as well as in the form of special electronic catalogues.
What the article aims at is presenting the specificity of the Polish Ethnographic Atlas
in the context of documentation, preservation and popularization of cultural heritage of the Polish countryside. Source materials of the Atlas constitute a unique source of rural history and, in contrast to other ethnographic studies, they comprise the whole territory of Poland. Arduously collected over the decades, the Atlas sources are a precious part of the material cultural heritage. Presenting and popularizing them is needed e.g. by local communities, which turn to their cultural roots to build their local/regional/national identity. Currently, the Polish Ethnographic Atlas is starting long-term documentary work concerning scientific processing and popularization of source materials essential for conducting and developing the research on the digital platform www.archiwumpae.us.edu.pl.
 
Key words: ethnology, Polish Ethnographic Atlas, wild plants, protection and
preservation of cultural heritage, digitalization
 
Stoličná, Rastislava: Possibilities of Using Wild Plants in the Traditional Culinary
Culture of Slovakia

 
Throughout the existence of humans people were acquiring and evaluating findings
about their life space and they were creating knowledge from their findings, which
was important in their daily lives and also in their life perspective. One of the sources of this ecological knowledge is ethnographic records. These sources give us an opportunity to get to know often forgotten knowledge about the wild growing plant species, which people used to normally eat. It documents the empirical material, acquired during ground exploration in different regions in Slovakia, which represents these plants and processes of their use in traditional culinary culture of Slovakia. These plants are known as superfoods, which can be as the opposite of modified food, which has almost lost its biologically active substances and is characteristic for the life in globalized community nowadays.
 
Key words: traditional ecological knowledge, wild plants, traditional culinary culture,
Slovakia

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